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Showing posts from 2019

India judiciary crackdown / Malaysia beneficial ownership / China oil SOE

Judges dismissed in crackdown on corruption in judiciary in India.  “In a major crackdown on judiciary in India, as many as three junior judges posted at District Courts, have been dismissed and eight others denied service extension in the southern state of Tamil Nadu.”Xinhua News: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-12/23/c_138652692.htmPeel away the layers of graft (Opinion).  “[Malaysia] has introduced property registers to make it harder for corrupt individuals to use opaque company structures to buy properties and even embark on international and domestic cooperation initiatives to tackle cross-border abuse of shell companies… This will strengthen public institutions and the corporate sector towards realising the National Anti-Corruption Plan (2019-2023) launched by the prime minister in January.”Raymon Ram/New Straits Times: https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/letters/2019/12/551087/peel-away-layers-graftFormer China Sinochem VP sentenced to 11-1/2 years prison for graft.  “…

Bangladesh CG awards / China bond handling / Big data vs corruption

32 firms awarded for outstanding corporate governance.  “The Institute of Chartered Secretaries of Bangladesh (ICSB) has awarded 32 companies for their outstanding corporate governance practices as well as transparency and accountability in overall management.”The Daily Star:https://www.thedailystar.net/business/news/32-firms-awarded-outstanding-corporate-governance-1843897Stung by record defaults, China vows for more transparent bond handling.  “Under-the-table repayment arrangements are not uncommon in China after companies failed to honor their debt obligation…Another trick concerning analysts is when a debtor misses payment, it tends to seek to negotiate payment extension with creditors via private discussion in lieu of resolving it through the clearing house.”Business Standard: https://www.business-standard.com/article/international/stung-by-record-defaults-china-vows-for-more-transparent-bond-handling-119122600026_1.htmlBig data vs corruption? (Opinion).  “In the end, techn…

Maldives islands scheme / China commission analysis / Grand corruption and SDGs

Grand corruption and the SDGs - selling the country's future: the island sales scheme in the Maldives (Case study/Report).  “The US$ 80 million lost to corruption in this scandal represents a large proportion of what needs to be spent on environmental protection in the Maldives. The rapid pace of tourist development, exacerbated by corrupt practices, has also rapidly exceeded what is sustainable for the natural environment, threatening biodiversity under water and on land.”Transparency International: https://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/publication/grand_corruption_the_sdgs_selling_the_countrys_future_the_island_sales_scheCan China be the next anti-corruption success story, after Hong Kong and Singapore? (Opinion).  “This single, independent body will be similar to the ICAC, and will be a great improvement on the current system, with its fragmented and ill-coordinated anti-corruption efforts.”Tony Kwok/South China Morning Post: https://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/a…

Goldman exec banned / Iran frustrated citizens / Nepal-India officials training

Goldman exec barred from industry for 1MDB bribes.  “US regulators said they had permanently barred a former Goldman Sachs executive from the securities industry over bribery in Malaysia’s 1MDB scandal.”Asia Times: https://www.asiatimes.com/2019/12/article/goldman-exec-barred-from-industry-for-1mdb-bribes/Anger grows in Iran over corruption, nepotism and the crazy-rich elite (Opinion).  “More than 40 percent of the Iranian population lives below the poverty line, so many are extremely frustrated by the stark rich-poor divide, and the corruption, cronyism and nepotism that is widespread at the top.”Dr. Majid Rafizadeh/Arab News: https://www.arabnews.com/node/1601396Nepali officials start anti-corruption training in India.  21 officials from Nepal’s Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA) received training on prevention of fraud, bribery and corruption in India at the Gujarat Forensic Sciences University. ANI News: https://www.aninews.in/news/world/asia/nepa…

Malaysia stocks requirement / Viet Nam non-state actors / Myanmar business outlook

Bursa Malaysia amends Main and ACE market listing requirements in relation to anti-corruption measures.  “In an effort to enhance the quality and integrity of listed issuers on Bursa Malaysia Berhad (“Bursa Malaysia” or the “Exchange”), the Exchange has amended the Main and ACE Market Listing Requirements (collectively “Listing Requirements”) [effective 1 June 2020,] to encapsulate anti-corruption measures (“Anti-Corruption Amendments”) in support of the National Anti-Corruption Plan 2019-2023.”  Bursa Malaysia: https://www.bursamalaysia.com/about_bursa/media_centre/bursa-malaysia-amends-main-and-ace-market-listing-requirements-in-relation-to-anti-corruption-measuresEnhancing anti-corruption law enforcement in non-state sector.  The enforcement of the anti-corruption law in enterprises and organisations in the non-state sector was the focus of a forum held in Hanoi by the Government Inspectorate in coordination with UNDP and the British Embassy in Vietnam.Vietnam Plus: https:…

Malaysia corruption fight / Philippines procurement savings / China efforts direction

Malaysia rides high in fight against corruption.  “Primary Industries Minister Teresa Kok, in a statement issued in conjunction with International Anti-Corruption Day on Dec 9, said that with the large number of corruption cases, Malaysia has begun to clear its name from corruption scandals in the eyes of the world.”Muhammad Afiq Mohd Asri & Muhammad Afiff Md Adnan/Bernama: http://www.bernama.com/en/news.php?id=1798744Pasig Mayor Vico Sotto Curbs Corruption, Saves P150 Million in Five Months.  “The bidding process is now truly open, rigidly following the correct procedures. As a result, competition is high and prices go down. Previously, almost all winning bids were within 1 percent of the [highest bidding price allowed], which is red-flagged by some auditors. Now, it is common to see winning bids that are 10 percent to 50 percent lower," said Sotto.”Mario Alvaro Limos/Esquire: https://www.esquiremag.ph/politics/news/vico-sotto-curbs-corruption-a00293-20191217Can China…

Social network interventions / Govtech for anti-corruption / Malaysia wildlife crimes

Social network interventions to tackle corruption.  “Although social networks can fuel and facilitate corruptive practices, our GI-ACE [Global Integrity Anti-Corruption Evidence Research Programme]project aims to harness the power of social networks to instead promote positive anti-corruption outcomes.Tobias Stark/Global Integrity Anti-Corruption Evidence Research Programme:https://ace.globalintegrity.org/interventions/Here's how tech can help governments fight corruption.  “Govtech start-ups can disrupt the way governments deliver value and empower citizens. They can help the public sector absorb digital disruptions and data insights to increase efficiency and transparency in the delivery of public services.”World Economic Forum: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/12/heres-how-tech-can-help-crack-down-on-corruption/International Anti-Corruption Day 2019: How Corruption Facilitates Wildlife Crimes (Podcast).  “[Earth Matters speaks] to Elizabeth John, a Senior Communicatio…

Bangladesh efforts' limits / Social media usage / Indonesia protesters commemoration

Unveiling the limits of anti-corruption drive (Opinion).  “…it is hard to expect the much-hyped anti-corruption drive [in Bangladesh] to be a magic bullet, nor will it be surprising if it remains limited to only a few spent forces and at best prove to be palliatives for some selected syndromes while the deeper and structural problem stays on.Iftekharuzzaman/The Daily Star:  https://www.thedailystar.net/opinion/governance/news/unveiling-the-limits-anti-corruption-drive-1839946Thank you to Transparency International Bangladesh for sharing this article.Why You Should be Using Social Media to Change Corrupt Behaviors (Blog).  “Using communications to amplify positive deviants—people who model the desired behavior, especially if they are few and far between—can also go a long way towards countering social norms that encourage a harmful behavior and incentivizing people to adopt the positive behavior.”Elizabeth Robinson/Tufts University:  https://sites.tufts.edu/ihs/why-you-should-be…

Indonesia business forum / ADB Fast Talk / Beneficial ownership-foreign bribery

Forum to highlight anticorruption measures.  “The forum, themed “A Business Perspective: Prevention on Corruption”, will cover various aspects of integrity faced by businesses operating in Indonesia, including existing challenges, measures and implications of existing regulations on anticorruption for the private sector.”The Jakarta Post: https://www.thejakartapost.com/adv/2019/12/09/forum-to-highlight-anticorruption-measures.htmlFAST TALK: Pana Ratanabanangkoon (Video).  “ADB FAST TALK speaks to Pana Ratanabanangkoon, Project Director of the Thailand Private Sector Collective Action Against Corruption (Thai CAC), on fighting the culture of corruption in the private sector.”Asian Development Bank: https://www.adb.org/news/videos/fast-talk-pana-ratanabanangkoonAnonymous company ownership helps hide foreign bribery. The OECD should promote transparency (Blog).  “If the OECD [Working Group on Bribery] were to address the issue, it would not only shine a spotlight how concealment…

Pakistan anti-graft app / Indonesia Rolls-Royce case / Cambodia businessmen sanctioned

PM launches Punjab anti-graft app.  “Addressing a launching ceremony of “Report Corruption” mobile application introduced by Punjab’s Anti-Corruption Establishment, he said… the youth of the country could play a leading role in the anti-corruption drive with their active participation. The prime minister also advised the Punjab government to publicise the performance of the mobile application on monthly basis.” Gulf News: https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/pakistan/pm-launches-punjab-anti-graft-app-1.68372463After 3 years, KPK concludes probe into Rolls-Royce bribery case implicating ex-Garuda boss.  “KPK spokesperson Febri Diansyah told journalists the investigation had reached its conclusion two years and 11 months after the antigraft body issued the sprindik (letter ordering the start of the investigation). “Today investigators are handing over…to prosecutors,” Febri said, adding that the trial would soon take place in the Jakarta Corruption Court.”The Jakarta Post: https://www.…

Indonesia film festival / Reclaiming inclusivity agenda / ADB corporate governance

Indonesia's anti-graft body holds anti-corruption film festival.  “The [Indonesian] anti-graft body (KPK)'s spokesperson, Febri Diansyah, said  films, songs, poems, tales, photos, comics and similar artistic products are important in bringing anti-corruption values through art.”Antara News:  https://en.antaranews.com/news/137835/indonesias-anti-graft-body-holds-anti-corruption-film-festivalReclaiming the Inclusivity Agenda: Further Notes on the ‘Reform-Revolution Continuum’ (Blog).  “The broad community of groups advancing transparency, participation, accountability, open government, social accountability and anti-corruption face the danger of assimilation, cooptation and dilution in favor of the agenda of the establishment by staying the same, dismissive of the changing world.”Joy Aceron/G-Watch: https://g-watch.org/think-piece/reclaiming-inclusivity-agenda-further-notes-%E2%80%98reform-revolution-continuum%E2%80%99ADB to Help Private Sector Enhance Corporate Governanc…

IACD climate action / Indonesia business integrity / Malaysia defence planning

International Anti-Corruption Day 2019: time to act against corruption and the climate crisis.  “For action against climate change to be effective, we urgently need to shift perspectives and step up efforts towards transparency, accountability, and integrity. We must make good governance the cornerstone of the fight against climate change.”Transparency Internationalhttps://www.transparency.org/news/feature/International_AntiCorruption_Day_2019Business must improve integrity in antigraft drive (Opinion).  “regardless of the stops and starts in the government’s anticorruption drive, the business sector needs to gear up its knowledge, sensitivity and capacity regarding ethical conduct in every step of business practices, to enable sustainable, consistent integrity.”Heru Prasetyo/The Jakarta Post: https://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2019/12/09/business-must-improve-integrity-in-antigraft-drive.htmlWhite Paper: Towards open, accountable defence planning.  “the White Paper has …

Open source intelligence / Bhutan IACD celebration / Social media use

International Anti-Corruption Day (Blog/Video).  “To engage anti-corruption agencies, civil society and individuals interested in the use of open source intelligence to combat corruption, the video (posted below) on Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) for Anti-Corruption Agencies was produced.”The ABA Rule of Law Initiative Blog: https://abaruleoflaw.blogspot.com/2019/12/international-anti-corruption-day.htmlThank you to Elisabeth Baraka from the American Bar Association for sharing this article. Joining International Community to observe the Anti-Corruption Day 2019.  “The Resident Representative of the UNDP joined the Chairperson of the [Anti-Corruption Commission] to highlight the importance of the [International Anti-Corruption Day and Business Integrity Initiative of Bhutan (BIIB).”Anti-Corruption Commission [of Bhutan]: https://www.acc.org.bt/?q=node/2146Why You Should be Using Social Media to Change Corrupt Behaviors (Blog).  “Using communications to amplify positive dev…

Myanmar Corruption Prevention Units / Land deals investigation / Corporate governance paradigm

Myanmar’s Corruption Prevention Units (Blog).  “Only established in 2019, Myanmar’s [Corruption Prevention Units] are already a promising example for a locally appropriate model for collaboration. This nurtures hopes that Myanmar will continue its walk towards reducing corruption and poverty in the years to come.”Kaspar Burger/United Nations Development Programme: https://www.asia-pacific.undp.org/content/rbap/en/home/blog/2019/MyanmarCorruptionPreventionUnits.htmlFollow the permits: How to identify corruption red flags in Indonesian land deals (Blog/Resource).  “Whether it is land-rights conflicts, criminalization, companies operating illegally, or something else, identifying questionable practices in the licensing and trade of mining and plantation companies can provide essential context.”National News Bureau of Thailand: https://thainews.prd.go.th/en/news/detail/TCATG191203092648474A Corporate Governance Paradigm Shift (Blog).  INSEAD Professor Loïc Sadoulet spoke about the c…

Indonesia risks spike / China Xinjiang ex-governor / Philippines ex-mayor sentenced

Top Indonesia graft buster warns on risk of spike in corruption.  “An Indonesian anti-corruption investigator, who was partially blinded in an acid attack in 2017, said on Friday a new law governing the country’s anti-graft agency could unleash a spike in corruption in Southeast Asia’s biggest economy.”Stanley Widianto and Agustinus Beo Da Costa/Reutershttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-corruption/top-indonesia-graft-buster-warns-on-risk-of-spike-in-corruption-idUSKBN1YA12MFormer governor of China’s Xinjiang sentenced in bribery.  “[Nur Bekri, the] former governor of China’s tense northwestern region of Xinjiang was sentenced to life in prison on charges of taking bribes, becoming one of the highest-profile ethnic minority politicians to fall in an ongoing anti-corruption campaign.”Associated Press: https://apnews.com/910c01192acd479c9b420bee81eda71aEx-Davao Oriental mayor gets 10 years for P2 million graft.  Former mayor William Duma-an of Caraga, Davao Oriental ha…

International Anti-Corruption Day / UNDP anti-corruption priorities / Viet Nam Anti-Corruption Initiative

International Anti-Corruption Day - United against corruption for development, peace and security (Campaign resource).  The global campaign #UnitedAgainstCorruption focuses on corruption as one of the biggest obstacles to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Find out about the campaigns and its communications materials via the link below.United Nations: http://www.anticorruptionday.org/actagainstcorruption/en/index.htmlEnsuring sustainable solutions to combatting corruption (Blog).  “Learning from our anti-corruption work in the past decade, we, together with our development partners and the anti-corruption development community in general, have identified four key priority areas of interventions for the ‘Next Generation of Anti-Corruption Programming’: Sustainable Development Goal 16 (#SDG16) and anti-corruption; technology and innovation; business integrity; and social accountability.”Haoliang Xu/United Nations Development Programme: https://www.undp.org/conten…

Pacific Anti-Corruption Updates (7 December 2019): PNG, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands

PNG:PNG parliament committee probes corruption in health sector. A Papua New Guinea parliamentary committee has been uncovering extensive corruption in the country's public health sector.https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/404817/png-parliament-committee-probes-corruption-in-health-sectorPNG electoral chief in custody after alleged bail breach. Papua New Guinea's Electoral Commissioner Patilias Gamato has been remanded in custody.https://www.rnz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/404998/png-electoral-chief-in-custody-after-alleged-bail-breachTrainee law student join Transparency International. Three law students from the UNPNG Law School have now embarked on the Transparency International PNG (TIPNG) Legal Internship Program (LIP), as they seek to bolster the functions of the anti-corruption body.https://postcourier.com.pg/trainee-law-students-join-transparency-international/FIJI: Former officer of Registrar of Titles makes court appearance for corruption relate…

Indonesia Chinese investment / IFC-Thailand sustainable finance / Pakistan tycoon assets

Indonesian Anti-Graft Agency Warns of Risk of Chinese Investment.   “Indonesia’s anti-corruption agency has warned of the risks of doing business with Chinese firms, while also raising concerns over Beijing’s efforts to exert economic influence in the Southeast Asian nation.” Karlis Sana/Bloomberg: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-12-03/indonesian-anti-graft-agency-warns-of-risk-of-chinese-investmentIFC and Bank of Thailand Join Hands to Accelerate Sustainable Finance in Thailand.  IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Bank of Thailand (BOT) to join forces to accelerate sustainable financing in Thailand. This partnership aims to enable more sustainable business practices by the financial industry and tackle key challenges to address environmental, social, and governance (ESG) risks.International Finance Cooperation:https://ifcextapps.ifc.org/IFCExt/Pressroom/IFCPressRoom.nsf/0/02F537E3DF422040852584BF00219B80Pakis…

Myanmar land corruption / Thailand House committee / Maldives ex-president convicted

Myanmar’s Ant-Graft Body Sues Land Management Official for Corruption.  “According to a statement by the ACC, U Win Aung, the former deputy head of the Agriculture Farmland Management and Statistics Department for Ye Township, asked 14 farmers for a total of about 5 million kyats (US$3,340) when they were applying to regain possession of farmland that was taken and then abandoned by the Myanmar military.”Zaw Zaw Thwe/The Irrawaddyhttps://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/myanmars-ant-graft-body-sues-land-management-official-corruption.htmlPeople fed up with House anti-corruption committee: Poll.  “A slight majority of people [51.51%] say the unending squabbling in [Thailand’s] House Committee on Corruption Suppression chaired by Pol Gen Sereepisuth Temiyavej is frustrating and should be stopped, according to an opinion survey by the National Institute for Development Administration”Bangkok Posthttps://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/1806114/people-fed-up-with-house-anti-corr…

Mainstreaming corporate governance / Thailand responsible business / China judicial integrity

Mainstreaming environmental, social and corporate governance (Blog).  “Unreliable [Environmental, Social and Governance] ratings impair investor decisions, market valuations, inter-firm and inter-market comparisons and risk assessments. Regulators need to engage in much more active oversight of compensation, incentives and transparency in this fast-growing field.Frank Vibert/LSE Business Review: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/businessreview/2019/11/28/mainstreaming-environmental-social-and-corporate-governance/Government introduces responsible business network.  To promote sustainability in national development, the government introduced the Thailand Responsible Business Network (TRBN), in which companies in the capital market come together to promote sustainable and responsible business operations. The network was initiated as a result of the good governance in the capital market promotion campaign, celebrating the Coronation, by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and Thai L…

Indonesia pardon case / Thailand education impediment / Republic of Korea ex-president case

Pardoning corruption (Editorial).  “[An Indonesian] law and human rights ministerial regulation issued earlier this year allows criminals aged above 70 years to ask for leniency on humanitarian grounds, such as illness and old age…[but the] corruption [the former Riau governor] Annas committed has deprived many people of their right to well-being and a healthy environment in which to live.”The Jakarta Posthttps://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2019/11/29/pardoning-corruption.htmlIs corruption holding back Thais? (Opinion).  “The report [produced by Pornamarin Phromkert of Khon Kaen University] states that corruption is deeply embedded in Thailand’s education system with everyone from politicians down to staff and owners creaming off tens of millions of baht from school budgets.”Sheith Khidhir/The ASEAN Post: https://theaseanpost.com/article/corruption-holding-back-thaisSouth Korea top court repeals ex-Pres. Park's bribery acquittal.  “South Korea's Supreme Court on Th…

India bribery incidence / Malaysia top concerns / Philippines Christmas gifts

1 in 2 Indians paid a bribe at least once in the past year, survey finds.  “The survey, conducted by independent anti-corruption advocates Transparency International India (TII) and social media platform LocalCircles, found that bribery had actually reduced by 10% over the past year. But it remains rampant, with 51% of respondents admitting they had paid bribes.”Jessie Yeung/CNN: https://edition.cnn.com/2019/11/27/asia/india-corruption-bribe-intl-hnk-scli/index.htmlStudy: In Malaysia, cost of living replaces corruption as a top concern after GE14.  “Corruption and power abuse, which used to be at the top of people’s concerns in the run up to GE14, has now been relegated to sixth position, according to EMIR Research’s inaugural National Worry Index (NWI).”R Loheswar/Malay Mail: https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2019/11/28/study-in-malaysia-cost-of-living-replaces-corruption-as-a-top-concern-after/1814189Pasig’s Vico Sotto kicks off ‘Pamaskong Handog’ distribution.  The city…

Pacific Anti-Corruption Updates (30 November 2019): PNG, Solomon Islands, Fiji

PNG:The web of corruption and incompetence in a terminally ill health system. Kase was asked about logistics, pharmaceutical standards and the contract bidding process that the committee has come to find is riddled with corruption and ‘insider trading’.  https://emtv.com.pg/the-web-of-corruption-incompetence-in-a-terminally-ill-health-system/Australia’s $440m loan to PNG ‘completely unrelated’ to countering China, Finance Minister says. The $440 million loan will be used at the Marape Government’s discretion, something Australia has not permitted in nearly two decades given PNG’s history of chronic corruption. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-25/australia-440-million-loan-to-png-completely-unrelated-to-china/11734146SOLOMON ISLANDS:Corruption is our dilemma. It has become our common culture to accept and live with corruption and other acts of injustice say Governor General His Excellency Sir David Vonage https://www.sibconline.com.sb/35092-2/Varley says strong system needed …

Malaysia procurement plan / Myanmar upcoming elections / Indonesia laments clemency

Malaysia’s new plan to address corruption in public procurement (Video interview).  Dr Anis Yusal Yusoff, Deputy Director-General of the National Centre for Governance, Integrity & Anti-Corruption (GIACC), talks about the country’s efforts to promote integrity in public procurement.Dr. Anis Yusal Yusoff and United Nations Development Programme: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3f4qdRWRJZY&feature=youtu.beElections obscure Myanmar’s economic outlook (Opinion).  “Election rules also place very few restrictions on company donations to politicians, beyond a ban on donations from foreign organizations or companies. The government still has a lot to do to bring its election laws in line with the UN Convention against Corruption, which calls on states to “enhance transparency in the funding of candidates for elected public office and, where applicable, the funding of political parties.”Thompson Chau/Asia Times: https://www.asiatimes.com/2019/11/article/elections-obscure-myanmars-e…

Republic of Korea foreign bribery / New KickBack podcast / Thailand censure debate

Samsung Heavy Industries to pay $75M in foreign bribery case.  “Samsung Heavy Industries, a South Korea-based engineering company, will pay total criminal penalties of $75.5 million to enforcement authorities in the United States and Brazil to resolve violations arising out of a scheme to pay millions of dollars in bribes to officials in Brazil.Jaclyn Jaeger/Compliance Week: https://www.complianceweek.com/anti-bribery/samsung-heavy-industries-to-pay-75m-in-foreign-bribery-case/28096.articleNew Podcast, Featuring Monika Bauhr (Blog/Podcast).  Professor Bauhr discusses her research work in three key areas: (1) the impact of pro-transparency reforms (particularly the adoption of freedom of information laws) on corruption; (2) the disaggregation of the broad category “corruption” into different types of corruption (such as “need” corruption versus “greed” corruption); and (3) the relationship between gender and corruption, in particular what factors might account for the apparent…

Fair business update / Government integrity key / Indonesia revolution betrayed

UNDP Fair Biz in ASEAN Newsletter.  Check out UNDP ‘Promoting a Fair Business Environment in ASEAN’ project’s the latest updates for the period of August-November 2019, with highlights in areas of business integrity and public procurement.United Nations Development Programme: https://mailchi.mp/85dc73a7b820/fairbizinasean-11993999?e=e25eae1c8cGovernment integrity holds key to tackling corporate corruption—study.  “Financial incentives and criminal punishment will not root out corrupt business practices, but a government culture of honesty, integrity and strong leadership could help to cure corruption [according to a recent research from Birmingham Business School]”University of Birmingham/Phys.org: https://phys.org/news/2019-11-key-tackling-corporate-corruptionstudy.htmlA revolution betrayed: The tragedy of Indonesia's Jokowi (Opinion).  “Jokowi has seemingly embraced the age-old notion of "efficient corruption", which presupposes that a degree of corruption is ine…